(NOT USUALLY -ny-to-net be-lat-a) (NOT Try-to-donit-be late.) . 16 softening and correcting ❑ I think; I feel; I reckon (informal); I guess (American); in my view/ opinion (formal); apparently; so to speak; more or less; sort of (informal); kind of (informal); well; really; that is to say; at least; I'm afraid; I suppose; or rather; actually; I mean I thinkifeellreckonl guess and in my view/ opinion are used to make opinions and statements sound less dogmatic - they suggest that the speaker is just giving a personal opinion, with which other people may disagree. I had hardly/scarcely closed my eyes when the phone rang. .) . This is the restaurant (which) I was talking about. I think you ought to try again. We would appreciate it ifyou would be so kind as to let us have your cheque by return. The baby doesn't look much like you. For actually in corrections, see paragraph 20 below and 11. ► page 95 a bit 106 2 abstract nouns: great Great is used mostly with abstract nouns - things you cannot see, touch etc. 'I couldn't care less.' I'd like to.' (N O T There is she.) Could you switch off the light? (= I know the answer to the question 'Where do you come from?'). page 32 all (3): all (of) with nouns and pronouns 35 3 older English In older English, all could be used alone to mean 'everybody' or 'everything' (e.g. `Yes, I have.' Hello! Note that no article is used with nature, society or space when these have a `general' meaning (see 68). (BUT NOT A little and a bit are not used with adjectives in attributive position (= before nouns - see 15). the woman upstairs the people outside Before a noun, present refers to time; after a noun it means 'here/there', 'not absent'. We got our roof blown off in the storm last week. You can't get him out of bed in the morning. Other adjectives and adverbs refer to non-gradable qualities - we do not usually say that things are more or less perfect, impossible or dead. Don't you believe it. .? Before it does any more damage. (N o T .4s-to-finish. "Oh, one can't complain.' Can I borrow your bicycle? When we speak, we show the exact meaning by stressing the word or expression that also/as well/ too refers to. That's all. He's going to have an accident one of these days. Compare: As we watched, he closed his eyes for the last time. (N o T .4o-can- stay. 263 if (6): meaning 'although' In a formal style, if can be used with a similar meaning to although. In this case, I should means more or less the same as you should. Don't work too hard. I don't know where to put the car. (NOT ... 1.1 He's good-looking except when he smiles. For go + adjective (go green, go blind etc), and the differences between get, go, become, turn etc, see 129. 6 any = 'it doesn't matter who/which/what' Any can be used to emphasise the idea of free choice, with the meaning of 'it doesn't matter who / which/ what'. The new school isn't much different from the old one. Is unless the same as if not? Some, somebody etc are called 'assertive forms'; any, anybody etc are called 'non-assertive forms'. If we want to give the other side of a question, we use on the other hand, not on the contrary. Come sit on my lap. I shall love you forever. "It was both of them.' so in this way.) .) a , • 8 things in general We usually use no article, not the, to talk about things in general - the does not mean 'all'. They include Irish, Welsh, English, British, Spanish, Dutch, French. 1 verb + adverb We'll have to think quickly. The bike you sold me is too small. the Mermaid Theatre.) Stefan can never return to his country (again). I went to have a look at the room where I was to talk that afternoon. I am telling the truth - you must believe me! I haven't seen her anywhere. .) He invented a machine to enable people in wheelchairs to get up stairs. 2 questions etc At all can also be used in questions, and with 'non-assertive' words like if, hardly, ever and any. I'll give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday morning. The structure often occurs alone in notices; it can also follow there is. simple future I will/shall work, you will work, he/she/it will work, we will/shall work, they will work future progressive I will/ shall be working, you will be working etc simple future perfect I will/shall have worked, you will have worked etc future perfect progressive I will/shall have been working, you will have been working etc simple present I work, you work, he/she/it works, we work, they work present progressive I am working, you are working etc simple present perfect I have worked, you have worked, helshelit has worked etc present perfect progressive I have been working, you have been working etc simple past I worked, you worked, he/she/it worked etc past progressive I was working, you were working etc simple past perfect //you/etc had worked past perfect progressive Ilyouletc had been working, you had been working etc infinitives ( to) work, (to) be working, (to) have worked, (to) have been working -ing forms working, having worked past participle worked Progressive forms are called 'continuous' in some grammars. . page 267 infinitive complements (1): after verbs 283 283 infinitive complements (1): after verbs verbs that can be followed by infinitives After many non-auxiliary verbs, we can use the infinitives of other verbs. - I hope to see you soon. "Neither/Nor do I.' ( N O T -Fve-got-werk-to-be-done,) If the subject is the person or thing that the action is done to, passive infinitives are normally used after be. swam, taken); children is an irregular plural. (More common than ... will enable repairs.) Don't go out now - we're about to have lunch. Students should not worry because they do not know all the collocations and other idiomatic expressions that are commonly used by English speakers. For more information about these, see 523. 3 care for Care for can be used to mean 'look after'. fit fit fit quit quit quit wet wet wet e Dive is regular in British English, but can be irregular in American. (N OT . genitive the form of a noun made with 's or s, used to show (for instance) possession. watch) She's not interested in anything but skiing. Both verbs are irregular: beat - beat - beaten win - won - won 93 because and because of 1 the difference Because is a conjunction. It depends partly on their position in the sentence. intensifying making stronger, more emphatic. (The listener does not know which particular French girl it is.) You wouldn't like to come out with us, by any chance? See also plural. There's nothing to be done - we'll have to buy a new one. . .) (BUT NOT ... a grocery. 3 except We use except, not except for, before prepositions and conjunctions. Throw to and shout to are used when there is no idea of attack. 3 other cases In other cases, we do not usually use the simple present to talk about the future.

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