Russell was later awarded an MBE, and the Royal Horticultural Society awarded him the Veitch Memorial Medal for a lifetime's achievement in horticulture. Lupins are important larval food plants for many lepidopterans (butterflies and moths). ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in, "Lupins: A love-hate story - North & South", Alkaloid profile, antibacterial and allelopathic activities of, https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/lupin, "LUPINS – REFLECTIONS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES", 'Características y applicaciones de las plantas: Altramuz Azul (, "Pink dandelions, cucamelons, edible lupins: seeds to plant now for a delicious summer". Dominating is the monopodial type of branching. Sweet (low alkaloid) lupins are highly regarded as a stock feed, particularly for ruminants, but also for pigs and poultry and more recently as an ingredient in aqua-feeds. , In New Zealand, where it is known as the Russell lupin, Lupinus polyphyllus is classed as an invasive species and covers large areas next to roadsides, pastures and riverbeds, especially in the Canterbury region. The ovary contains two and more ovules or seedbuds. It is understood the pair worked together for several years to perfect the Russell Hybrid, before they were displayed at the Royal Horticultural Society's June show in 1937, where their brightly coloured, tightly packed spires won awards. Soy substitute edges its way into European meals.  Because of the cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupin, the European Commission, as of 2006, has required that food labels indicate the presence of "lupin and products thereof" in food. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Kurlovich, B.S., Rep’ev, S.I., Shchelko, L.G., Budanova, V.I., Petrova, M.V., Buravtseva, T.V., Stankevich, A.K., Kartuzova, L.T., Alexandrova, T.G., Teplyakova and T.E., Malysh, L.K. "Lupin" redirects here. Features erect, dense, terminal, spike-like racemes of yellow, lupine-like flowers which bloom in early summer. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lupinus&oldid=988848291, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, each flower 1–2 cm long. 1 (1984), pp. The Karner cannot feed upon Russell lupines, nor can it feed upon the base Lupinus polyphyllus species.  Spanish domination led to a change in the eating habits of the indigenous peoples, and only recently (late 20th century onward) has interest in using lupins as a food been renewed. , The templates created by Russell are still used by other specialist lupine horticulturalists today, e.g., Maurice and Brian Woodfield, nurserymen from Stratford-upon-Avon, who received the RHS Veitch Memorial Medal for their work on lupines in 2000. Additionally, incompatible lupines continue to be introduced by humans into places where the Karner lives or once lived.. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, each flower 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long, most commonly blue to purple in wild plants. Lupinus polyphyllus (large-leaved lupine, big-leaved lupine, many-leaved lupine, blue-pod lupine, or, primarily in cultivation, garden lupin) is a species of lupine (lupin) native to western North America from southern Alaska and British Columbia east to Quebec, and western Wyoming, and south to Utah and California. Typically grows 3-4' (less frequently to 5') tall. The taxonomy of Lupinus has always been confusing. An exception is the chamis de monte (Lupinus jaimehintoniana) of Oaxaca in Mexico, which is a tree up to 8 m (26 ft) tall. Only compatible forms are involved in hybridization, with their low alkaloid content controlled by one and the same genetic system. They are very hardy plants, surviving extreme temperatures withstanding frost to at least −25 °C (−13 °F) and the wild varieties can easily become invasive and hard to dispose of unless kept in check on a regular basis. The leaves are palmately compound with (5-) 9-17 leaflets 3–15 centimetres (1.2–5.9 in) long. Cotyledons are small-sized, with long caulicles. It is native to the south to Utah and California, western North America, western Wyoming, and southern Alaska. The species is extirpated from British Columbia. Leaflets are smooth, with waxen coating or slight pubescence, predominantly narrow. Pods are flat or orbicular, with two or more seeds. In Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Palestine, and Israel, salty and chilled lupini beans are called termos and in Hebrew turmus (תורמוס) and are served as part of an apéritif or a snack. The newer garden hybrids of today are highly poisonous because they are full of toxic alkaloids and should never be eaten.  In 2009, Sarah Conibear who runs the Westcountry Nurseries, displayed several new varieties including the ‘Beefeater', about which the RHS writer Graham Rice commented "[the beefeater] has what looks to be the best red lupine we've seen so far.".