Passer arboreus Bonaparte, 1850 (preoccupied) , Aggressive males give a trilled version of their call, transcribed as "chur-chur-r-r-it-it-it-it". , The taxonomy of the house sparrow and its Mediterranean relatives is complicated. House Sparrow Call Description.  Nests typically have external dimensions of 20 × 30 cm (8 × 12 in), but their size varies greatly.  Young birds also give a true song, especially in captivity, a warbling similar to that of the European greenfinch. At least two clutches are usually laid, and up to seven a year may be laid in the tropics or four a year in temperate latitudes. Immature males have paler versions of the adult male's markings, which can be very indistinct in fresh plumage.  Males may try to mate with females while calling or displaying.  In towns and cities, it often scavenges for food in garbage containers and congregates in the outdoors of restaurants and other eating establishments to feed on leftover food and crumbs. Now there are few places on the planet that would not have been inhabited by sparrows. Females usually are slightly smaller than males. , The male is duller in fresh nonbreeding plumage, with whitish tips on many feathers. It is a small bird that has a typical length of 16 cm (6.3 in) and a mass of 24–39.5 g (0.85–1.39 oz). , The female develops a brood patch of bare skin and plays the main part in incubating the eggs.  The numbers of house sparrows in the Netherlands have dropped in half since the 1980s, so the house sparrow is even considered an endangered species.  Eggs hatch at the same time, after a short incubation period lasting 11–14 days, and exceptionally for as many as 17 or as few as 9.  Wingspan ranges from 19–25 centimetres (7.5–9.8 in).  Jesus's use of "sparrows" as an example of divine providence in the Gospel of Matthew also inspired later references, such as that in Shakespeare's Hamlet and the Gospel hymn His Eye Is on the Sparrow.  Several Middle Eastern subspecies, including P. d. biblicus, are sometimes considered a third, intermediate group.  The length of the incubation period decreases as ambient temperature increases later in the breeding season. , Most house sparrows do not move more than a few kilometres during their lifetimes.  The commonly recorded bacterial pathogens of the house sparrow are often those common in humans, and include Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Though found in widely varied habitats and climates, it typically avoids extensive woodlands, grasslands, and deserts away from human development. Of the less widespread P. d. indicus group subspecies, P. d. hyrcanus is larger than P. d. indicus, P. d. hufufae is paler, P. d. bactrianus is larger and paler, and P. d. parkini is larger and darker with more black on the breast than any other subspecies.  Finally, house sparrows in constant darkness could be entrained to a cycle of high and low temperature, but only if the difference in temperature was large (38 °C versus 6 °C); some of the tested sparrows matched their activity to the warm phase, and others to the cold phase. The nest is usually domed, though it may lack a roof in enclosed sites. Learn about The Spruce Pets' Editorial Process. ", "Mass-dependent predation risk as a mechanism for house sparrow declines? Anting is rare. They were among the first bird species to be seriously studied in terms of their circadian activity and photoperiodism, in part because of their availability and adaptability in captivity, but also because they can "find their way" and remain rhythmic in constant darkness. , In Great Britain, populations peaked in the early 1970s, but have since declined by 68% overall, and about 90% in some regions.  The typical ratio of males to females in a population is uncertain due to problems in collecting data, but a very slight preponderance of males at all ages is usual. International Studies on sparrows 30: 23-37. van Heezik, Y.; Smyth, A.; Hathieu, R. 2008.  The timing of mating and egg-laying varies geographically, and between specific locations and years because a sufficient supply of insects is needed for egg formation and feeding nestlings. Passer engimaticus Zarudny, 1903  Its introduced range encompasses most of North America, Central America, southern South America, southern Africa, part of West Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and islands throughout the world. Such foreign eggs are sometimes recognised and ejected by females. , Males take up nesting sites before the breeding season, by frequently calling beside them. In response, a female will adopt a threatening posture and attack a male before flying away, pursued by the male.  After fledging and leaving the care of their parents, young sparrows have a high mortality rate, which lessens as they grow older and more experienced.  On the Mediterranean islands of Malta, Gozo, Crete, Rhodes, and Karpathos, other apparently intermediate birds are of unknown status. The common type of "willow sparrow" is the Spanish sparrow, which resembles the house sparrow in many respects. , Nest sites are varied, though cavities are preferred. In most places, grasshoppers and crickets are the most abundant foods of nestlings. The Latin word passer, like the English word "sparrow", is a term for small active birds, coming from a root word referring to speed. Smaller, trimmer, and shorter tailed than a Song Sparrow; slightly larger than a chickadee. However, the same sparrow, living in the wild lives to 22 years!  The subspecies P. d. tingitanus differs little from the nominate subspecies, except in the worn breeding plumage of the male, in which the head is speckled with black and underparts are paler.  In the early part of the 20th century, sparrow clubs culled many millions of birds and eggs in an attempt to control numbers of this perceived pest, but with only a localised impact on numbers.  House sparrows are also infected by haemosporidian parasites, but less so in urban than in rural areas. Passer rufidorsalis C. L. Brehm, 1855  A sparrow sometimes excavates its own nests in sandy banks or rotten branches, but more frequently uses the nests of other birds such as those of swallows in banks and cliffs, and old tree cavity nests. The reason for this unfavorable conditions for life – it’s cats, and a small amount of feed, and even people. , The female has no black markings or grey crown. However, juveniles cannot be reliably sexed by plumage: some juvenile males lack any markings of the adult male, and some juvenile females have male features. During the 1870s, there were debates on the damaging effects of sparrows in the House of Commons in England.